University of Athens – 4th Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School

The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens wasofficially founded in April 14th, 1837. , A key achievement of the 4th Department of Internal Medicine of UoA is that it developed intravenous clarithromycin as an adjunctive therapy in sepsis. The Hellenic Sepsis Study Group (HSSG) is a non-profit organization that sponsors the research and training activities within the field of sepsis; this is a collaboration of 32 departments of Internal Medicine, 25 Intensive Care Units and nine departments of Surgery from Greece ( The HSSG is organizing national and international conferences and has published own guidelines for the management of sepsis. University of Athens and its 4th Department of Internal Medicine have all the required facilities (including animal facilities) and research infrastructure to carry out the required tasks of the ESRs within ESA-ITN. The laboratory of Immunology of Infectious Diseases is occupied with centrifuges, laminar-flow biosafety II cabinets and fridges at -700C and has over a decade of experience with sepsis research.

Involved researchers:

Evangelos Giamarellos-Bourboulis, MD, PhD is Professor of Medicine, an expert in sepsis and member of the Steering Committee of the World Sepsis Day ( He is most known for the integration of intravenous clarithromycin as immunomodulator in sepsis for which he has conducted all pre-clinical and clinical development. He was awarded in 2009 the ESCMID Young Investigator Research Award for his contribution in the immunotherapy of sepsis. He is chairing the Hellenic Sepsis Study Group and the Hellenic Sepsis Study Institute. His main research topics are immunotherapy and biomarkers of sepsis.

Maria Mouktaroudi, MD, PhD  is physician and consultant. Her PhD was awarded for the successful bacterial eradication of experimental sepsis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the intravenous administration of a solution of arachidonate. She was trained in Immunology of Infectious Diseases in the Radboud Nijmegen University Medical School of Netherlands in 2006-2007.